1800- The Library of Congress was founded.
Thomas Jefferson's Library
1801- Jefferson was elected President y the House of Representatives.
Draft of Inaugural Address
First Inaugural Address (Transcription)
Print of Thomas Jefferson
1801- Adams appointed John Marshall Chief Justice.
Chief Justice John Marshall, half-length portrait
1803- Louisiana Purchase was made.
The Louisiana Purchase Treaty
Map of Louisiana (1805)
A map of the United States and part of Louisiana
1804- Burr and Hamilton dueled which lead to Hamilton's death.
Today in History (Burr and Hamilton)
1804- Lewis and Clark set out.
Lewis and Clark Exhibition
Nicholas King with annotations by Meriwether Lewis (Map)
"Captains Lewis & Clark holding a council with the Indians" (1812 Engraving)
An Act Making Compensation to Messrs. Lewis and Clarke, and their companions
Meriwether Lewis's letter to Jefferson about the expedition's return to St. Louis.
1808- The slave trade was ended.
Remarks on the Slave-Trade (1807)
1809- Madison was Inaugurated as President.
Letter from Jefferson to Madison
Madison full length portrait
1812- War of 1812 began.
War of 1812 Political Cartoon
Madison asking Congress for a declaration of war
Proclamation of War on Britain
News from New Orleans victory over British Troops
A journal, containing an accurate and interesting account of the hardships, sufferings, battles, defeat, and captivity of those heroic Kentucky volunteers and regulars
James Madison's Chronology of events in the War of 1812
Letter from Jefferson to Madison about the declaration of war
1812- Daniel Webster was elected to the United States Congress
Bill for the Encouragement of Enlistments (1814)
The Tariff Bill (1824)
Presidential Veto of the U.S. Bank Bill (1832)
Slavery in the District of Columbia (1838)
Compromise of 1850 (1850)
Daniel Webster is Dead!
Daniel Webster portrait
1817- Monroe was inaugurated as President.
James Monroe, half-length portrait
James Monroe First Inauguration
1820- The Missouri Compromise was passed.
Missouri Territory Map (1814)
Maine and Missouri Senate Debate
Missouri's application for admission into the union
Jefferson expresses his opinion on the Missouri Compromise
1823- The Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed.
The Monroe Doctrine
James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson seeking foreign policy advice
1825- John Quincy Adams was elected President.
Treaty with the Republic of Columbia (1825)
John Q. Adams portrait
John Quincy Adams Inauguration
1826- John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died within hours of each other 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence.
Jefferson reflects on the Declaration of Independence 10 days prior to his death
1828- Nullification Crisis: The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was published.
Tariff Act of 1828
Tariff Act of 1832
1828- Andrew Jackson was elected President.
Draft of Andrew Jackson's Inaugural Address
Jackson's Inaugural Address
1830- Second Great Awakening, a religious revival movement took place.
The Life of the Pilgrim, Joseph Thomas for one account of the travels of an itinerant minister during the Second Great Awakening.
1830- The Oregon Trail came into use by settlers migrating to the Pacific Northwest.
Scottsbluff and the old Oregon Trail, Nebraska
Recollections and opinions of an old pioneer
1830- The Indian Removal Act was passed.
The Indian Removal Act was passed.
Indian removal policy
Map showing the lands assigned to emigrant Indians west of Arkansas and Missouri
1831- A revolt led by Nat Turner occurred.
The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Virginia
1832- Black Hawk War took place.
1836- Battle of the Alamo took place.
Today in History (Remembering the Alamo)
1836- Samuel Colt Invented the revolver.
Print shows Samuel Colt, seated, facing slightly right, holding revolver; with text copied from the New York Journal of Commerce.
1837- Van Buren was inaugurated.
Martin Van Buren a full length portrait
1837- Panic of 1837 took place.
The Times (Political Cartoon)
1841- William Henry Harrison became President.
General William Henry Harrison, candidate of the people for president of the United States
Harrison Inaugural Address
William Henry Harrison (Born 1773 Died 1841)
1841- John Tyler becomes President.
John Tyler portrait
1845- James K. Polk became President.
James K Polk grand March Sheet Music
1849- Zachary Taylor became President.
Death of Taylor
1849- California gold rush began.
"California as I Saw It:" First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849-1900
Today in History: Gold
1850- Millard Fillmore became President.
Millard Fillmore, American candidate for president of the United States
Millard Fillmore, three-quarter length portrait
1850- The compromise of 1850 was passed.
The Compromise of 1850 was introduced by Senator Henry Clay in a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850.
John C. Calhoun's speech to the United States Senate against the Compromise of 1850
Today in History: Compromise of 1850
1853- Franklin Pierce became President.
1856- Preston Brooks beat Charles Sumner with his walking stick in the Senate chamber.
1857- James Buchanan became President.
1857- A decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford declared that blacks were not citizens of the United States and could not sue.
Dred Scott Decision
Abraham Lincoln wrote a speech examining the constitutional implications of the Dred Scott Case
Frederick Douglass delivered a speech discussing the Dred Scott decision
Dred Scott engraving
Historical and legal examination of that part of the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Dred Scott case
The slavery question. Dred Scott decision : to the free voters of Ohio.
Letter, Roger Brooke Taney to Caleb Cushing thanking Cushing for his support of Taney's decision in the Dred Scott case
1859- John Brown led a raid on Harper's Ferry.
Harper's Ferry insurrection
Address of John Brown to the Court
Today in History: John Brown
1860- The Pony Express was founded.
Pony Express Route
Today in History: Pony Express
1860- Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States.
Lincoln for President
Lincoln's First Inaugural Address
Photograph of Lincoln in 1860
Lincoln-Hamlin campaign button
1860- South Carolina seceded from the Union.
The "secession movement"
South Carolina's "ultimatum"
1861- Ten more stated seceded from the Union and established the Confederate States of America.
The Hercules of the Union, slaying the great dragon of secession
1861- Jefferson Davis is elected.
Jefferson Davis, Senator from Mississippi
Today in History: Jefferson Davis Elected
Jeff Davis Song Sheet
1861- American Civil War began at Fort Sumter.
Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the batteries of the Confederate states
Fort Sumter Map
1861- Battle of Bull Run took place.
First Battle of Bull Run Guide
1862- General Robert E. Lee was placed in command the Army of Northern Virginia.
Portrait of Gen. Robert E. Lee
Newspaper: Lee is put in charge of Confederate Army.
1862: The Battle of Antietam took place.
Confederate dead by a fence on the Hagerstown road
Lincoln at Antietam
Bodies of Confederate dead gathered for burial
Hospital notebook "At Antietam"
Bodies of Confederate artillerymen near Dunker church
Today in History: Battle of Antietam
1863: The Battle of Gettysburg
Incidents of the war. A harvest of death
Gettysburg, Pa. Three Confederate prisoners
Today in History: Gettysburg Day 1
Today in History: Gettysburg Day 2
Today in History: Gettysburg Day 3
Gettysburg Address Photograph
Gettysburg Address Exhibit
July 4th, 1863 (Union) Newspaper
July 7, 1863 (Confederate) Newspaper
1864- General Ulysses S. Grant was put in command of all Union forces.
Abraham Lincoln to Ulysses S. Grant, Monday, July 13, 1863 (Congratulations on capture of Vicksburg).
Portrait of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, officer of the Federal Army
General Ulysses S. Grant at his headquarters
1864- Sherman's March to the Sea: The March took place.
Today in History: Sherman Captures Fayetteville
Today in History: The Fall of Atlanta
Sherman to Lincoln (The Fall of Savannah)
1865- Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.
Today in History: Lee Surrenders
Lee Surrenders (Union Newspaper)
Lee Surrenders (Confederate) Newspaper
1865- Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.
Assassination of Lincoln (Timeline)
Assassination of Lincoln (Gallery)
What's in Lincoln's Pockets?
1865- The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed, permanently outlawing slavery.
13th Amendment to the States
13th Amendment Senate debate
"The Constitutional Amendment," The Daily Phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.), December 14, 1865
"The Official Announcement of the Adoption of the Constitutional Amendment--Opinions of the Leading Press," Daily National Republican. (Washington, D.C.), December 21, 1865
1867- The Alaskan territory was purchased from Russia.
Treaty with Russia
The Alaska purchase
"The Russian Treaty...Price to be Paid only $7,200,000," The Sun. (New York [N.Y.]), April 12, 1867.
1868- Grant was elected President
Ulysses S. Grant First Inauguration, March 4, 1869
1869- The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed.
The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, 1869.
Today in History: Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad
1871- Great Chicago fire occurred.
Today in History: Great Chicago Fire
The City of Chicago, showing the burnt district.
Chicago Fire Interview
1872- Yellowstone National Park was created.
"Old Faithful" Geyser, Yellowstone National Park
Yellowstone, the First National Park
1876- The National League of Baseball was founded.
Historic Baseball Images
Historic Baseball Audio/Video
Baseball Sheet Music
1876- The Centennial Exposition was held in Philadelphia.
Stereographs of the 1876 Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Views of the 1876 Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, Pa.
1876- Battle of Little Bighorn took place.
Today in History: Custer's Last Stand
Lieutenant Robert Patterson Hughes Letter to his wife with map of the Battle of Little Big Horn.
Portrait of Maj. Gen. George A. Custer
1876- Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.
Alexander Graham Bell as Inventor and Scientist
The Telephone and the Multiple Telegraph
1877- U.S. presidential election awards Rutherford B. Hayes the Presidency.
A certificate for the electoral vote for Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler for the State of Louisiana dated 1876
President Rutherford B. Hayes, half-length portrait.
Rutherford B. Hayes Inauguration, March 5, 1877
1879- Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.
American Memory: Edison
Newspaper about the light bulb (1879)
1881- Gunfight at the O.K corral took place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory.
Tombstone Arizona Fire Insurance Map
1881- James Garfield was inaugurated President of the United States of America.
James A. Garfield Inauguration, March 4, 1881
1881- Garfield was as assassinated.
Death of General James A. Garfield
The President Shot (Newspaper)
1881- Chester Arthur was inaugurated President of the United State of America.
Chester Arthur Oath of Office, September 20, 1881
1881- Clara Barton created the Red Cross.
Clara Barton Photograph
Miss Barton's Appointment (Newspaper)
Clara Barton Tells Her Own Story of Red Cross Triumphs
1882- The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed.
Anti-Chinese Movement and Chinese Exclusion
Expressing the regret of the Senate for the passage of discriminatory laws against the Chinese in America, including the Chinese Exclusion Act.
1885- Grover Cleveland was inaugurated as President.
Today in History: Grover Cleveland
1885- The Washington Monument was completed.
Today in History: Washington Monument
1886- Haymarket Riot took place.
Transcript and Exhibits from the Trial of Illinois vs. August Spies et al.
Autobiographies of Two Defendants
1889- Benjamin Harrison becomes President.
Benjamin Harrison Inauguration, March 4, 1889
1890- Wounded Knee Massacre occurred.
Big Foot's camp three weeks after the Wounded Knee Massacre
1892- The Homestead Strike took place.
Homestead Strike Photographs
Homestead Strike Newspaper Articles
Homestead Riot (Harper's Weekly)
1892- General Electric was founded.
General Electric Company, Schenectady Works
1893- Cleveland was inaugurated President for a second term.
Grover Cleveland Second Inauguration, March 4, 1893
Plessy vs. Ferguson (Newspaper Articles)
Today in History: Plessy v. Ferguson
1897- William McKinley became President.
William McKinley First Inauguration, March 4, 1897
1897- The Boston Subway was completed.
Subway entrances on Boston Common
Descent into subway, Public Garden, Boston, Mass.
1898- The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War.
Spanish-American Treaty of Peace, Paris Dec. 10th 1898
Spanish American War (Newspaper Articles)