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Loyola University Chicago

Teaching with Primary Sources

19th Century

1800- The Library of Congress was founded.

Thomas Jefferson's Library

1801- Jefferson was elected President y the House of Representatives.

Draft of Inaugural Address

First Inaugural Address (Transcription)

Print of Thomas Jefferson

1801- Adams appointed John Marshall Chief Justice.

Chief Justice John Marshall, half-length portrait

1803- Louisiana Purchase was made.

The Louisiana Purchase Treaty

Map of Louisiana (1805)

A map of the United States and part of Louisiana

1804- Burr and Hamilton dueled which lead to Hamilton's death.

Today in History (Burr and Hamilton)

1804- Lewis and Clark set out.

Lewis and Clark Exhibition 

Nicholas King with annotations by Meriwether Lewis (Map)

"Captains Lewis & Clark holding a council with the Indians" (1812 Engraving)

An Act Making Compensation to Messrs. Lewis and Clarke, and their companions

Meriwether Lewis's letter to Jefferson about the expedition's return to St. Louis.

1808- The slave trade was ended.

Remarks on the Slave-Trade (1807)

1809- Madison was Inaugurated as President.

Letter from Jefferson to Madison 

Madison full length portrait

1812- War of 1812 began.

War of 1812 Political Cartoon

Madison asking Congress for a declaration of war 

Proclamation of War on Britain

News from New Orleans victory over British Troops

A journal, containing an accurate and interesting account of the hardships, sufferings, battles, defeat, and captivity of those heroic Kentucky volunteers and regulars

James Madison's Chronology of events in the War of 1812

Letter from Jefferson to Madison about the declaration of war

1812- Daniel Webster was elected to the United States Congress

Bill for the Encouragement of Enlistments (1814)

The Tariff Bill (1824)

Presidential Veto of the U.S. Bank Bill (1832)

Slavery in the District of Columbia (1838)

Compromise of 1850 (1850)

Daniel Webster is Dead!

Daniel Webster portrait

1817- Monroe was inaugurated as President.

James Monroe, half-length portrait

James Monroe First Inauguration 

1820- The Missouri Compromise was passed.

Missouri Territory Map (1814)

Maine and Missouri Senate Debate

Missouri's application for admission into the union

Jefferson expresses his opinion on the Missouri Compromise

1823- The Monroe Doctrine was proclaimed.

The Monroe Doctrine

James Monroe to Thomas Jefferson seeking foreign policy advice

1825- John Quincy Adams was elected President.

Treaty with the Republic of Columbia (1825)

John Q. Adams portrait

John Quincy Adams Inauguration

1826- John Adams and Thomas Jefferson died within hours of each other 50 years after the signing of the Declaration of Independence. 

Jefferson reflects on the Declaration of Independence 10 days prior to his death

1828- Nullification Crisis: The South Carolina Exposition and Protest was published.

Tariff Act of 1828

Tariff Act of 1832

1828- Andrew Jackson was elected President.

Draft of Andrew Jackson's Inaugural Address

Jackson's Inaugural Address

Jackson's Portrait

1830- Second Great Awakening, a religious revival movement took place. 

The Life of the Pilgrim, Joseph Thomas for one account of the travels of an itinerant minister during the Second Great Awakening.

1830- The Oregon Trail came into use by settlers migrating to the Pacific Northwest.

Scottsbluff and the old Oregon Trail, Nebraska

Recollections and opinions of an old pioneer

1830- The Indian Removal Act was passed.

The Indian Removal Act was passed.

Indian removal policy

Map showing the lands assigned to emigrant Indians west of Arkansas and Missouri

1831- A revolt led by Nat Turner occurred.

The Confessions of Nat Turner, the Leader of the Late Insurrection in Southampton, Virginia

1832- Black Hawk War took place.

Black Hawk

1836- Battle of the Alamo took place.

Today in History (Remembering the Alamo)

1836- Samuel Colt Invented the revolver.

Print shows Samuel Colt, seated, facing slightly right, holding revolver; with text copied from the New York Journal of Commerce.

1837- Van Buren was inaugurated.

Martin Van Buren a full length portrait

1837- Panic of 1837 took place.

The Times (Political Cartoon)

1841- William Henry Harrison became President.

General William Henry Harrison, candidate of the people for president of the United States

Harrison Inaugural Address

Harrison Portrait

William Henry Harrison (Born 1773 Died 1841)

1841- John Tyler becomes President.

John Tyler portrait

1845- James K. Polk became President.

James K Polk grand March Sheet Music

1849- Zachary Taylor became President.

Taylor Photograph

Campaign Badge

Death of Taylor 

1849- California gold rush began.

"California as I Saw It:" First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849-1900 

Today in History: Gold

1850- Millard Fillmore became President.

Millard Fillmore, American candidate for president of the United States

Millard Fillmore, three-quarter length portrait

1850- The compromise of 1850 was passed.

The Compromise of 1850 was introduced by Senator Henry Clay in a series of resolutions on January 29, 1850.

John C. Calhoun's speech to the United States Senate against the Compromise of 1850

Today in History: Compromise of 1850

1853- Franklin Pierce became President.

Pierce's Inauguration

1856- Preston Brooks beat Charles Sumner with his walking stick in the Senate chamber.

Political Cartoon

1857- James Buchanan became President. 

Buchanan Inauguration

1857- A decision in Dred Scott v. Sanford declared that blacks were not citizens of the United States and could not sue.

Dred Scott Decision

Abraham Lincoln wrote a speech examining the constitutional implications of the Dred Scott Case

Frederick Douglass delivered a speech discussing the Dred Scott decision

Dred Scott engraving

Historical and legal examination of that part of the decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in the Dred Scott case

The slavery question. Dred Scott decision : to the free voters of Ohio.

Letter, Roger Brooke Taney to Caleb Cushing thanking Cushing for his support of Taney's decision in the Dred Scott case

1859- John Brown led a raid on Harper's Ferry.

Harper's Ferry insurrection

John Brown

Address of John Brown to the Court

Today in History: John Brown

1860- The Pony Express was founded.

Pony Express Route

Today in History: Pony Express

1860- Abraham Lincoln was elected President of the United States.

Lincoln for President 

Lincoln's First Inaugural Address

Photograph of Lincoln in 1860

Lincoln-Hamlin campaign button

1860- South Carolina seceded from the Union.

Union Dissolved!

The "secession movement"

South Carolina's "ultimatum"

1861- Ten more stated seceded from the Union and established the Confederate States of America. 

Secession exploded

Secession Map

The Hercules of the Union, slaying the great dragon of secession

1861- Jefferson Davis is elected.

Jefferson Davis, Senator from Mississippi 

Today in History: Jefferson Davis Elected

Jeff Davis Song Sheet

1861- American Civil War began at Fort Sumter.

Fort Sumter

Bombardment of Fort Sumter by the batteries of the Confederate states

Fort Sumter Map 

1861- Battle of Bull Run took place.

First Battle of Bull Run Guide

1862- General Robert E. Lee was placed in command the Army of Northern Virginia.

Portrait of Gen. Robert E. Lee

Newspaper: Lee is put in charge of Confederate Army.

1862: The Battle of Antietam took place.

Confederate dead by a fence on the Hagerstown road

Lincoln at Antietam

Bodies of Confederate dead gathered for burial

Hospital notebook "At Antietam"

Bodies of Confederate artillerymen near Dunker church

Antietam Map

Today in History: Battle of Antietam

1863: The Battle of Gettysburg

Gettysburg Map

Incidents of the war. A harvest of death

Gettysburg, Pa. Three Confederate prisoners

Today in History: Gettysburg Day 1

Today in History: Gettysburg Day 2

Today in History: Gettysburg Day 3

Gettysburg Address Photograph

Gettysburg Address Exhibit

July 4th, 1863 (Union) Newspaper

July 7, 1863 (Confederate) Newspaper

1864- General Ulysses S. Grant was put in command of all Union forces.

Abraham Lincoln to Ulysses S. Grant, Monday, July 13, 1863 (Congratulations on capture of Vicksburg).

Portrait of Maj. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, officer of the Federal Army

General Ulysses S. Grant at his headquarters

1864- Sherman's March to the Sea: The March took place.

Today in History: Sherman Captures Fayetteville

Today in History: The Fall of Atlanta

Diary (Union)

Sherman to Lincoln (The Fall of Savannah)

1865- Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House.

Today in History: Lee Surrenders

Lee Surrenders (Union Newspaper)

Lee Surrenders (Confederate) Newspaper

1865- Lincoln was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth.

Assassination of Lincoln (Timeline)

Assassination of Lincoln (Gallery)

What's in Lincoln's Pockets?

1865- The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution was passed, permanently outlawing slavery. 

13th Amendment to the States

13th Amendment Senate debate

"The Constitutional Amendment," The Daily Phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.), December 14, 1865

"The Official Announcement of the Adoption of the Constitutional Amendment--Opinions of the Leading Press," Daily National Republican. (Washington, D.C.), December 21, 1865

1867- The Alaskan territory was purchased from Russia.

Treaty with Russia

The Alaska purchase

"The Russian Treaty...Price to be Paid only $7,200,000," The Sun. (New York [N.Y.]), April 12, 1867.

1868- Grant was elected President

Ulysses S. Grant First Inauguration, March 4, 1869

1869- The First Transcontinental Railroad was completed. 

The completion of the Transcontinental Railroad, 1869.

Today in History: Completion of the Transcontinental Railroad

1871- Great Chicago fire occurred.

Today in History: Great Chicago Fire

The City of Chicago, showing the burnt district.

Chicago Fire Interview

1872- Yellowstone National Park was created.

"Old Faithful" Geyser, Yellowstone National Park

Yellowstone, the First National Park

1876- The National League of Baseball was founded.

Historic Baseball Images

Historic Baseball Audio/Video

Baseball Cards

Baseball Sheet Music

Baseball Timeline

1876- The Centennial Exposition was held in Philadelphia.

Stereographs of the 1876 Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Views of the 1876 Centennial Exposition, Philadelphia, Pa.

1876- Battle of Little Bighorn took place.

Today in History: Custer's Last Stand

Lieutenant Robert Patterson Hughes Letter to his wife with map of the Battle of Little Big Horn.

Portrait of Maj. Gen. George A. Custer

1876- Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.

Alexander Graham Bell as Inventor and Scientist

The Telephone and the Multiple Telegraph

1877- U.S. presidential election awards Rutherford B. Hayes the Presidency.

A certificate for the electoral vote for Rutherford B. Hayes and William A. Wheeler for the State of Louisiana dated 1876

President Rutherford B. Hayes, half-length portrait.

Rutherford B. Hayes Inauguration, March 5, 1877

1879- Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.

American Memory: Edison

Newspaper about the light bulb (1879)

1881- Gunfight at the O.K corral took place in Tombstone, Arizona Territory.

Tombstone Arizona Fire Insurance Map

1881- James Garfield was inaugurated President of the United States of America.

James A. Garfield Inauguration, March 4, 1881

1881- Garfield was as assassinated.

Death of General James A. Garfield

The President Shot (Newspaper)

1881- Chester Arthur was inaugurated President of the United State of America.

Chester Arthur Oath of Office, September 20, 1881

1881- Clara Barton created the Red Cross.

Clara Barton Photograph

Miss Barton's Appointment (Newspaper)

Clara Barton Tells Her Own Story of Red Cross Triumphs

1882- The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed.

Anti-Chinese Movement and Chinese Exclusion 

Expressing the regret of the Senate for the passage of discriminatory laws against the Chinese in America, including the Chinese Exclusion Act.

1885- Grover Cleveland was inaugurated as President.

Today in History: Grover Cleveland

1885- The Washington Monument was completed.

Today in History: Washington Monument

1886- Haymarket Riot took place.

Newspaper Articles

Transcript and Exhibits from the Trial of Illinois vs. August Spies et al.

Autobiographies of Two Defendants

1889- Benjamin Harrison becomes President.

Benjamin Harrison Inauguration, March 4, 1889

1890- Wounded Knee Massacre occurred. 

Big Foot's camp three weeks after the Wounded Knee Massacre

1892- The Homestead Strike took place.

Homestead Strike Photographs

Homestead Strike Newspaper Articles

Homestead Riot (Harper's Weekly)

1892- General Electric was founded.

General Electric Company, Schenectady Works

1893- Cleveland was inaugurated President for a second term. 

Grover Cleveland Second Inauguration, March 4, 1893

Plessy vs. Ferguson (Newspaper Articles)

Today in History: Plessy v. Ferguson

1897- William McKinley became President.

William McKinley First Inauguration, March 4, 1897

1897- The Boston Subway was completed.

Subway entrances on Boston Common

Descent into subway, Public Garden, Boston, Mass.

1898- The Treaty of Paris ended the Spanish-American War.

Spanish-American Treaty of Peace, Paris Dec. 10th 1898

Spanish American War (Newspaper Articles)